Wi-Fi network

The city hopes to buy the system, originally built by EarthLink, for $2 million

The city of Philadelphia plans to buy a controversial Wi-Fi network that was built by EarthLink in 2006 but sold only two years later as the struggling ISP pulled out of the municipal wireless business.

The Philadelphia network was conceived in the middle of this decade with the vision of blanketing the city with wireless Internet access. The city planned the network in part to make sure low-income residents would have some form of Internet access. Many other U.S. cities followed Philadelphia's lead with similar plans, which EarthLink offered to carry out, but soon the ISP pulled out of the business. The Philadelphia network, which covered about 75 percent of the city, was saved from demolition in 2008 when EarthLink sold it to Network Acquisition Co. (NAC), a local company.

Pending city council approval, Philadelphia will buy the network for US$2 million and primarily use it for city operations, said city spokesman Douglas Oliver. Over the next five years, the city would invest about $17 million to add public-safety radios to the infrastructure and finish building it out to cover the whole city. By that time, the investments will have more than paid off in savings from more efficient city operations, said Chief Technology Officer Allan Frank. For example, workers can be more productive by filing reports from the field instead of going back to the office.

Free public Internet access will be available in some public spaces, and eventually, the city may bring in revenue through partnerships with government agencies and educational institutions, Oliver said. But the plan to use Wi-Fi to democratize the Internet has gone by the wayside.

"The digital divide is still real, and it is still something that needs to be addressed. Perhaps that was not the model to address it, but it makes the cause no less worthy," Oliver said.

NAC will be selling the network to Philadelphia for about the same price it paid to EarthLink. To pay for it, the city will tap into a capital fund for public safety as well as a federal Department of Homeland Security grant for installing security cameras around the city. Those cameras will be connected via Wi-Fi. Building a similar network from scratch would cost about $30 million, the city estimated.

Philadelphia is probably making a good investment, according to Craig Settles, an independent municipal networking analyst who has written a book about the city's Wi-Fi odyssey. Cities can save a lot of money by equipping field employees with Wi-Fi, as well as applying the network to new technologies, such as electronic parking meters. Those meters cost less to operate because there is no cash to handle, and they can increase revenue by detecting meter violations as soon as they occur, he said.

Municipal Wi-Fi plans for places such as San Francisco, Chicago and Silicon Valley generated excitement partly because of the promise of access to Wi-Fi anywhere, in some cases for free. At companies such as EarthLink, the idea of paid or ad-supported Wi-Fi for consumers became a distraction from the viable business model of city services, Settles said.

"It was the reason that those networks failed, because it became the tail that wagged the dog," Settles said. The cost was high for cities that bought into that dream. "Most cities had no financial investment, but they lost time and they lost political equity," he said.

Settles pointed to Houston, Oklahoma City, Minneapolis, and Providence, Rhode Island, as cities that have had success with municipal Wi-Fi. Only one of those networks, in Minneapolis, is used for paid consumer Internet access, he said. 500mW Outdoor Wi-Fi Access Point/Client/Repeater Bridge500mW Outdoor Wi-Fi Access Point/Client/Repeater Bridge500mW Outdoor Wi-Fi Access Point/Client/Repeater Bridge

Power over Ethernet

Friday, December 18, 2009
Power Over Ethernet

PoE, With Advances in technology smaller devices i.e Mini tower computers, laptop. and portable network devices become small enough both physically and electronically to not only use the Ethernet cable to transmit data to the device, but also to send the electricity necessary to power the device.

The SLM2005 switch is ideal for conference rooms, labs, shipping and receiving departments or in marketing, design or audio and visual work-groups. The five 10/100/1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) ports enable companies to link to other Gigabit devices on the network (servers, workstations and network storage) to quickly move bandwidth-intensive files while still supporting 10/100 Mbps clients.
The SLM2005 supports the IEEE802.3af standard for Power over Ethernet (PoE) for obtaining its power over a designated PD port or from an external AC power adapter. This gives companies the option to install the switch in places where a power outlet may not be present, such as in ceilings and in walls.
The SLM2005 is able to secure the network through IEEE 802.1Q VLANs and IEEE 802.1X port authentication. For environments where IP multicast applications are used, the switch is capable of limiting the traffic to only the ports that have requested that traffic with support of IGMP Snooping. Additional QoS capabilities like IEEE 802.1p, DSCP, and 4 hardware queues make it possible to maintain good quality for real-time applications like voice and video.
The SLM2005 offers an easy-to-use browser interface for the management and configuration of the features, making it ideal for small businesses without an IT staff or that have minimal technical expertise.


Earth Hour Vote Earth for Copenhagen

This video will be projected onto the Globe in City Hall Square during Earth Hour Copenhagen.




Multiple Input, Multiple Output

IEEE 802.11n builds on previous 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) 11n a (PHY) Physical Layer 1 of the OSI model. 40 MHz channels to the PHY (physical layer), and frame aggregation to the MAC layer.

With MIMO, each physical radio card had multiple radio chains - currently up to three per physical radio card. There will be up to four radio chains per radio card. A radio chain is an RF radio
connected to an RF antenna.

MIMO is a technology which uses multiple antennas to coherently resolve more information than possible using a single antenna. In 802.11a,b, and g systems multiple transmissions are not possible without significant impact to throughput and link integrity.


Motorola Expands 4G Broadband

Motorola expands 4G broadband during 2009 as it builds momentum for WiMAX and LTE in 2010
Lands more WiMAX contracts, gains TD-LTE foothold and expands portfolio of products to help operators worldwide deliver experiences to their customers

The Home & Networks Mobility business of Motorola, Inc. (NYSE: MOT) today reiterated its commitment to both WiMAX and Long Term Evolution (LTE) as the leading technologies that enable the media experiences that people want, while delivering the lowest cost per bit for operators. Motorola believes there are distinct markets for WiMAX and LTE, and both will co-exist as operators work to meet the ever-increasing demand for fixed, nomadic and mobile data.

“Wireless broadband is the utility of the 21st century, and Motorola has the solutions in both WiMAX and LTE that will meet consumer demand and operator requirements for network efficiency,” said Bruce Brda, senior vice president and general manager, Wireless Networks, Motorola Home & Networks Mobility. “Motorola’s legacy of expertise in wireless broadband, IP networking, video and services, coupled with our portfolio of proven solutions, can help operators go to market quickly to maximize their competitive advantage as they deploy new networks or evolve their existing networks to 4G.”

Motorola’s 4G progress in 2009 was marked with accomplishments in both LTE and WiMAX that have positioned it well for further momentum in 2010. In addition, Motorola has stated its commitment to WiMAX 802.16m as it expands its product portfolio and customer base to maintain its leadership position in WiMAX. The company also continues its active participation in numerous standards bodies as they refine specifications for various technologies that will enable faster broadband access.

According to Motorola’s 2009 Media Engagement Barometer , a study recently commissioned by the Home & Networks Mobility business to gain insights from American consumers, the need to stay connected and to have access to personal content transcends generations. The overwhelming desire to be constantly connected was expressed by 80 percent of the Millennials and 78 percent of both the GenXers and Boomers who participated in the survey. The barometer findings clearly show how networking technologies have had a powerful impact in integrating the different facets of people’s lives, and why delivering on the promise of 4G is so important to Motorola’s Wireless Networks business.

Motorola’s early commitment to WiMAX has given it vast experience and expertise in designing, planning, optimizing and managing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) mobile broadband networks. It also has yielded tremendous insight into perfecting the 4G network scheduler, the master controller of the radio access network that prioritizes voice and data traffic.
Motorola is leveraging this extensive OFDM, multiple-in/multiple out (MIMO), all-IP wireless broadband experience, and expertise in the 4G scheduler to deliver a complete award-winning LTE solution that will support both FDD and TD-LTE. Its first commercial LTE deployments will be based on third-generation WiMAX products that have been proven and field-hardened and for which algorithms have been optimized to deliver best performance in a real-world environment.
”With our experience from WiMAX we can get our LTE customers to market faster and with less risk,” Brda said. “Our deployment, management and optimization of many large-scale commercial WiMAX networks around the world gives us operations-level experience which our research and development teams use to make better and more stable LTE solutions.”

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer

The IEEE creates the industry standards in the United States and in many parts of the world. The IEEE created the 802.11-2007 standard and subsequent WLAN amendments. The IEEE creates the standards within the confines of regulatory domains. The IEEE website is www.ieee.org
The body responsible for IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), 802.11 (WLAN), and many other specifications. The IEEE creates standardized data communications protocols for Layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model.(Open System Interconnection)

Layers of OSI Model

Layer 7 | Network Application
Layer 6 | Presentation
Layer 5 | Session
Layer 4 | Transport
Layer 3 | Network
Layer 2 | Data - Link ( is your Ethernet protocol and Ethernet addressing * MAC Address
*LLC sublayer
*MAC sublayer
Layer 1 | Physical - traffic is going across your network medium ( such as your network cable or your wireless air waves)